Accuracy and Attention to Detail – Key Requirements for a Pharmacy Technician

Many Americans are looking for a recession proof job, which is fulfilling and rewarding. The pharmacy industry experienced a surge in growth lately. The projected growth rate of a particular kind of technician is especially promising. Pharmacy techs are indispensable in the day to day operations of the pharmacy. Many jobs are available, and a pharmacy technician can work in many different work places. Many pharmacies are open 24 hours, which can result in odd work hours for the technician.

A pharmacy tech is often considered the right hand of the pharmacist. He/she has a variety of duties in the pharmacy. The particular duties of a pharmacist technician depend largely on the place of employment, experience, and seniority. Online and retail pharmacies operate in many ways similar to pharmacies located in drugstores and grocery stores. In most work environments, the technician’s duties include data entry for storing and sorting purposes, labeling bottles, filling prescriptions, as well as dispensing medications to patients/customers.

Keeping an accurate count of stored medications, and maintaining the stock, are also duties of a pharmacy technician. This includes all over-the-counter medications as well. Filling out insurance claims, and contacting insurance companies are the responsibility of a technician. Questions related to prescriptions sometimes require a technician to contact the patient’s physician for verification. The preparation of IV solutions, creams, and ointments can also be done by the pharmacy technician.

As an assistant to the pharmacist, clerical and administrative duties are also fulfilled by the pharmacy tech. This mainly includes answering the phone, and managing the financial operations of the pharmacy. Customer service is a big part of the daily duties of any pharmacy technician. Regardless of the size of pharmacy, dealing with customers, or patients if your workplace is a hospital or clinic, is a requirement.

Filling prescriptions and dispensing medications are tasks that need attention to detail. Accuracy is important, as filling a prescription incorrectly can ultimately cause a lot of harm to a patient/customer. Adverse reactions can even cause death. Medications are often named very similar. Double-checking the medication and the dosage ensures, the patient/customer receives the right medication for his/her condition. It is also important to be aware of exchanging brand name medications with equivalent generic medications, as these may contain additional ingredients.

Pharmacy techs are not allowed to advise patients/customers. For any questions regarding medications, they have to refer the patient/customer to the pharmacist. The pharmacist is the person, who has to give information about possible adverse reactions or general information about medical issues to the patient. Technicians can only refer to the pharmacist for question, even though they may know the answer.

A career in this field is rewarding. Someone, who likes to deal with people, enjoys responsibility, is diligent, and has the required attention to detail, will find this occupation very fulfilling. The predicted job growth rate is higher than average. Pharmacy technicians can advance by being certified. A CPR certificate is an example for such a certification. The median salary of a pharmacy technician is around $ 25,000-30,000 annually.

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Everything You Need to Know About Holistic Doctors

Holistic medical doctors combine the modern scientific treatment with complementary or alternative medicine like massage, acupuncture and chiropractic. The holistic doctor looks at everything and then gives a pharmaceutical drug option as well as an alternative treatment that could include homeopathic remedy. Homeopathic treatment isn’t something many doctors and institutions embrace, but it is under the umbrella of holistic medicine.

A holistic doctor will most often encourage some diagnostic testing like hormone levels and adrenal function. This is done so as to try and find if there are any underlying causes that have led to an imbalance. The whole person is considered in the whole healing process so as to have health at its optimal by having balance.

The practitioners in this area are of the belief that a human has parts that are interdependent and when one isn’t working as it should, all the others are affected. This means that if there is any kind of imbalance regardless of the type, it affects the overall health to a great extent.

A good example is a person suffering from migraines. If they decide to visit this kind of doctor, they may not work out with only medications. The doctor will take time to look at all the possible factors that could be causing the headaches. He will also search for any other health problems that could cause the migraines including personal problems, stress, sleep habits and even diet. Treatment can involve using drugs as well as modifications to one’s lifestyle to make sure that the headaches don’t recur.

The principles

Holistic medicine also believes that unconditional support and love are very powerful healers and that a person is actually responsible for their own wellbeing and health. Other principles are:

  • The patient isn’t a disease but a person
  • Everyone has got innate healing powers
  • Treatment should involve the fixing, of course not just dealing with the symptoms.
  • There is a need for a team approach for healing to be effective and it should involve the doctor and patient and should address all the different aspects of personal life of the patient using a wide range of practices in health care.

Types of treatment

Different treatment techniques are applied to help patients to be responsible and to achieve their optimal health. The approaches depend on the training of the practitioner and they can include:

  • Education regarding self-care and lifestyle changes so as to promote wellness, including spiritual counseling, relationship counseling, and psychotherapy and even exercise among many others.
  • Alternative and complementary therapies including naturopathy, massage therapy, homeopathy, chiropractic care and acupuncture. And so on
  • Surgical procedures and modern medicine.

Where to find a holistic doctor?

Holistic providers can include homeopathic doctors, chiropractors, Naturopathic doctors, osteopathy doctors and even medical doctors. There are different associations that can help you get in touch with such a doctor depending on where you are based. There are online lists that can help you in finding someone close to you.

Don’t settle for the first person you find. This is a profession like others, meaning there are people who do a better job than others. A recommendation from, a trusted source like someone close to you or a health organization that is credible could be a great idea.

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Everything You Need to Know About Holistic Doctors

Holistic medical doctors combine the modern scientific treatment with complementary or alternative medicine like massage, acupuncture and chiropractic. The holistic doctor looks at everything and then gives a pharmaceutical drug option as well as an alternative treatment that could include homeopathic remedy. Homeopathic treatment isn’t something many doctors and institutions embrace, but it is under the umbrella of holistic medicine.

A holistic doctor will most often encourage some diagnostic testing like hormone levels and adrenal function. This is done so as to try and find if there are any underlying causes that have led to an imbalance. The whole person is considered in the whole healing process so as to have health at its optimal by having balance.

The practitioners in this area are of the belief that a human has parts that are interdependent and when one isn’t working as it should, all the others are affected. This means that if there is any kind of imbalance regardless of the type, it affects the overall health to a great extent.

A good example is a person suffering from migraines. If they decide to visit this kind of doctor, they may not work out with only medications. The doctor will take time to look at all the possible factors that could be causing the headaches. He will also search for any other health problems that could cause the migraines including personal problems, stress, sleep habits and even diet. Treatment can involve using drugs as well as modifications to one’s lifestyle to make sure that the headaches don’t recur.

The principles

Holistic medicine also believes that unconditional support and love are very powerful healers and that a person is actually responsible for their own wellbeing and health. Other principles are:

  • The patient isn’t a disease but a person
  • Everyone has got innate healing powers
  • Treatment should involve the fixing, of course not just dealing with the symptoms.
  • There is a need for a team approach for healing to be effective and it should involve the doctor and patient and should address all the different aspects of personal life of the patient using a wide range of practices in health care.

Types of treatment

Different treatment techniques are applied to help patients to be responsible and to achieve their optimal health. The approaches depend on the training of the practitioner and they can include:

  • Education regarding self-care and lifestyle changes so as to promote wellness, including spiritual counseling, relationship counseling, and psychotherapy and even exercise among many others.
  • Alternative and complementary therapies including naturopathy, massage therapy, homeopathy, chiropractic care and acupuncture. And so on
  • Surgical procedures and modern medicine.

Where to find a holistic doctor?

Holistic providers can include homeopathic doctors, chiropractors, Naturopathic doctors, osteopathy doctors and even medical doctors. There are different associations that can help you get in touch with such a doctor depending on where you are based. There are online lists that can help you in finding someone close to you.

Don’t settle for the first person you find. This is a profession like others, meaning there are people who do a better job than others. A recommendation from, a trusted source like someone close to you or a health organization that is credible could be a great idea.

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Are Nurse Practitioners Just As Trustworthy As Doctors?

There are approximately 200,000 licensed Nurse Practitioners (“NP”) in the United States, making it likely that you will run into one at some point. Contrary to popular belief, for the average person’s normal needs, NPs may be just as helpful as regular doctors, and are often easier to schedule an appointment with.

Are Nurse Practitioners Trustworthy?

Like medical doctors, Nurse Practitioners are trained in all areas of primary care, including diagnosis, treatment, prevention, health education, medication prescription, and medication management. They have completed registered nursing school as well as graduate-level or doctoral-level educations that include didactic and clinical coursework, and are licensed to diagnose and treat patients without supervision from a medical physician. Their Master’s programs may take up to three years while their Doctorate programs can take up to six years. You may find them working in a private practice, a school, a nursing home, in the emergency room, or in public health departments. Over 50% work in family or adult practices, but others also specialize in gerontology, neonatology, oncology, pediatrics, psychiatric-mental health, women’s health, and acute care. Every two years they are required to show proof of continuing medical education to renew their license to practice in all 50 states. They also work collaboratively with medical physicians, especially if faced with a new or unfamiliar situation.

The American Association of Nurse Practitioners recently published a study summarizing evidence that compared patients under NP care with those under the care of regular physicians. The study found that patients under NPs had higher satisfaction, fewer readmissions to the hospital or visits to the emergency room, and higher rates of avoiding unnecessary hospitalizations. Additionally, they may also be a more cost-effective alternative to doctors, due in large part to lower educational costs – approximately 25% that of medical school.

What Are The Benefits Of Seeing A Nurse Practitioner Instead Of A Doctor?

NPs provide almost all of the services that doctors provide, such as:

– Examining and diagnosing patients

– Treating short-term issues and prescribing medications or other treatments

– Treating long-term issues like diabetes or high blood pressure

– Providing healthy lifestyle counseling and education on disease prevention

– Managing consistent, overall care for patients (like primary care physicians)

In addition, NPs tend to focus more on preventative care, as they may often be less busy with appointments than regular physicians and have more time to listen and discuss preventative issues such as quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy diet, and keeping regular exercise habits. Depending on where you live, they may also be more readily available than a primary care physician, especially if you are not located in an urban metropolis. The United States has a shortage of primary care providers, so the convenience of scheduling with a Nurse Practitioner may be crucial if you have a pressing need to be seen by a healthcare professional.

Of course, whether you choose an NP or a medical physician, you should be mindful of their communication style and the natural rapport you develop with them. Always follow your intuition about whether or not you trust that person with your healthcare.

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Green Living – Eco Home Design and Environmental Friendly Habits

Why green living?

I have 8 grandchildren and I would like them to live in the future in a world as good or better than the world we know today. But that will only be possible if we take more care of our use of natural resources and the environment. I think I need to take responsibility for what I can, linked to my daily life, and I would recommend you to do the same if you care for your grandchildren.

Is it difficult to live more green?

Many have the feeling that to live more green is very bothersome, expensive and difficult. But take these advices and see if they fit your temper and possibilities. As with a lot of things in life it helps to think and plan a little ahead of what you want to do. For me the following approach toward a more green daily life has been rewarding.

Generate ideas of more green living

Use five minutes to list a lot of things you expect would reduce your and your family’s impact on the environment. Just dot the ideas down as they come into your mind. If feasible do it as a family event around the table and engage everyone in this green brainstorm. Think of three types of more green living as follows and put your green ideas into the three categories:

1. Green ideas that will save you money

2. Green ideas that will be neutral on your economy

3. Green ideas that will cost you money

1. Green ideas that will save you money

The ideas for greener living that will save you money should be implemented immediately. It is stupid to waste money and at the same time pollute more or use more resources than needed. Many companies here in Denmark have made use of this to reduce their environmental impact and to improve their competitiveness and profit from that green initiative at the same time. Many private households would benefit from it too.

Examples of green ideas that will save you money more or less from the moment you implement them are:

– Avoid running toilets and dripping taps (remember the garden, too).

– Have your lamps and electricity running more than needed, e.g. in rooms without any persons, and the standby lamps of electrical equipment.

– Drive your care more softly and you reduce the consumption of gasoline and keep your tires longer.

2. Green ideas that will be neutral on your economy

If you think of your grandchildren as I recommend the green ideas that will be neutral to your economy should also be taken into consideration. It is ideas for greener living that just need a little attention from you in your daily life.

Such more green habits could be

– When you are shopping avoid the extra bags and wrapping from the shop if you don’t need it.

– Make your own compost in your garden and keep as much of the nutrition’s in your garden instead of ‘exporting’ garden waste and have to buy fertilizers etc.

– Reduce your consumption of red meat and prepare food with more fish, chicken and turkey and supplement more with veggies. – That will also be healthier.

3. Green ideas that will cost you money

Ideas for greener living that cost you money might also be worthwhile considering, so please read on. Here I will emphasise the environmental effect when you buy new kinds of equipment, like a new freezer, a new car, a new computer, a new washing machine etc. The whole trend of eco home design will often belong to this category.

Take your time to investigate the different qualities related to the environmental impact of the different brands and models of machines and equipment. Search for independent rating of the environmental impacts. In Europe we have a marking with A to E for the energy consumption and the most environmental friendly washing machines etc. will have an A label. Most consumers at least in Denmark will be very much aware of that label and go for it if it isn’t too expensive.

The beauty of such an expense is that in most cases it will pay off in the long run to pay the extra for an environmental friendly model because you will save electricity or other tings in the long run. In many cases the premium environmental friendly machines will also be of the best quality and that will help you too. So you see it isn’t that difficult to get started with some new greener habits and you can still look your grandchildren in the eyes because you are caring for their future.

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Auto Transport & Car Shipping Industry Exposed

Auto transport industry is run by 90% by the brokers! The majority of auto transport companies don’t own car trailers. They don’t have the staff or budget to market themselves to the public or the customer service team to provide support to their clients. They typically rely on word of mouth or local advertising to get the business. Carriers deeply rely on the brokers to fill up their trucks and keep them moving.

Auto transport brokers have access to hundreds of transporters and can generally accommodate you on any location you may need to get your car picked up or delivered to. Working with a reputable broker may help you get a better price or find a company you wouldn’t otherwise find on your own. The broker may also provide you with a more competitive price quote and offer you better support. Many of the drivers are one man operations or are under-staffed to provide you with quality customer service.

How the auto transport industry works?

When you get a quote from different companies/brokers – they all compete for your business. But the reality is you are actually bidding for the drivers to move your car. If your quote is too low, you car will not be picked or it may take few weeks for the delivery.

Here is an example on how this works: let’s say the route is (NJ to FL). There is usually 20-40 cars waiting to be picked up on the dispatch board which is used by all truckers in the industry. They are all priced from high to low. The drivers will be more attracted to loads that are paying more. So if you picked the lowest quote and there are 10 cars all quoted higher on the list, your car will be sitting at your driveway for awhile. Your load will be the last to get picked up, or you simply may never get a driver assigned while a dishonest broker promises you the world and takes your money.

How to get the right auto transport quote?

In the industry where money talks – your budget will determine the price to get your vehicle picked up and delivered. Choosing the lowest car transport rates is not always recommended. We constantly hear complaints from consumers who first dealt with low balled quotes and than went with a higher quote – got their vehicles picked up with 2-4 business days.

Search Google for “auto transport quotes”, “car transport rates”, or “car shipping quotes” and checkout various auto transport company websites. Get quotes from individual companies, or comparison sites and compare rates. You can check the company’s track record on sites like Transport Reviews.

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The Emergence of the Smartphone

Since their explosion in popularity, cell phones have become increasingly more feature-rich and sophisticated, with enough features to supplement, or even replace, other devices such as media players, digital cameras, and PDAs. On the leading edge of this technological advancement in the smartphone, a device that blurs the line between a cell phone and a PDA.

Smartphone: Changing Definitions

By definition, a smartphone is a mobile phone that incorporates a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant). A PDA is a miniature, hand-held device that replicates key features of a personal computer, most notably document viewing, task and contact management, and Internet access. A smartphone, while possibly sharing many of these features, is still primarily a “voice-centric” device, while a PDA is, by nature, “data-centric.” Rather than one device replacing the other, PDAs and smartphones have often developed in tandem, with PDAs taking on more voice-centric aspects, and smartphones including features previously limited to PDAs.

Most contemporary smartphones include Internet and e-mail access, scheduling or PIM software, contact management, and the ability to read (and sometimes compose) document formats such as Word, Excel and PDF. Many smartphones also feature built-in cameras, music players, and GPS navigation software, making them an excellent all-in-one replacement for a variety of other devices. As cell phone technology continues to develop, many features previously isolated to smartphones become common in mid-range cell phones. As such, the definition of what precisely constitutes a “smartphone” is constantly evolving.

Pricing and services for various smartphones will, of course, vary by carrier. If you have a Verizon smartphone, for example, the Blackberry Voice & Data Core Choice Bundle from Verizon Wireless offers 450 minutes of voice time, with unlimited nights and weekends and virtually unlimited Internet data usage (Web browsing, email, and instant messaging) for $79.99 a month. On the other hand, Cingular’s Good Mobile Messaging Smartphone Connect service, which is offered separately from its basic voice services, offers unlimited data usage within its coverage area for $34.99 a month. Add this to Cingular’s 450-minute basic voice package ($39.99 a month) and it comes out to a very competitive $75 a month from Cingular.

The Most Popular Smartphones

While not quite as diverse as standard cell phones, smartphones are available in a wide array of styles and capabilities. In terms of culture and mind-share, the Blackberry is probably the most popular and easily recognizable smartphone currently on the market. The Blackberry 8800, for example, features nearly everything customers have come to expect in a smartphone: a full QWERTY keyboard, Internet and email access, document viewing, an integrated music and media player, and built-in GPS capability. (For users who need a digital camera, the Blackberry Pearl or the new Blackberry Curve are excellent choices.)

On the other hand, if you’re looking for something a bit less utilitarian than the Blackberry, the Palm Treo is slim and sporty (available in a distinctive crimson red), featuring a digital camera with video capture, an MP3 player, and Bluetooth.

Like many smartphones, the Treo eliminates the need to carry around a multitude of other devices. For the user who’s really passionate about multimedia, Cingular’s ultra-slim Blackjack is one of the most video-intensive smartphones available, featuring a rich media player and Cingular Video. The Blackjack’s Cingular Music Service supports several online music stores, as well as XM satellite radio, making it an ideal choice for the user who wants a smartphone and a powerful media player in one convenient package.

As with all emergent technology, new products are constantly pushing the boundaries. Apple’s iPhone promises to raise the bar even further, not only featuring a camera, multimedia player, text messaging, Web browsing, and wireless connectivity, but a touchscreen interface and virtual keyboard that promises to bring a new level of functionality to users, with Apple’s distinctive sense of style and design.

A Smart Choice for You?

While many cell phone users will be more than happy with the features of an average cell phone, smartphones have a lot to offer people who want or need Internet access, email, and multimedia while away from the home or office. While the price tag on a smartphone is often significantly higher than a mid-range cell phone, a smartphone can be a highly economical choice when compared to the cost of all the devices it can effectively replace. For the frequent business traveler or someone who’s just on the move a lot, a smartphone can be a marvelous all-in-one solution.

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Eight Reasons Why You Can Call Yourself a Nurse Detective

Like a good mystery? Love to see a detective put together clues to solve a crime? You may not realize it, but being a nurse is like being a detective. I compared what you need to be a detective with what you need to be a nurse and found these eight ways the two careers are similar:

1. Both must be knowledgeable

Detectives know their territory. They figure out how to get around, what type of soil is found where and when it rained. They can look at a person’s shoes or car tires and know where he has been.

Nurses’ territory is their patient. They must find out: Why is he here? What signs and symptoms do I need to watch for to prevent complications from his illness? What goals must he and I meet for him to get better?

2. Both need to cultivate an eye for detail

Detectives observe their surroundings carefully, even when they think there is nothing special to observe, because they never know what might end up being important to solve their case. Nurses observe even the littlest thing about a patient because they know every bit of information may make a difference in that patient’s care or recovery.

3. Both must learn to read people’s faces.

Detectives and Nurses watch body language and notice whether it seems natural and agrees with their words. Criminals might be lying to avoid incrimination. Patients might be hiding the truth because of embarrassment, lack of understanding or cultural beliefs. A patient may say he’s not in pain, but have facial grimacing.

4. Both get good at searching for information.

Detectives and nurses must know what they don’t know and know where to find it. Detectives go to the public record. Nurses go to the patient’s chart.

5. Both skillfully ask questions.

Detectives and Nurses get to the heart of a matter without putting somebody on their guard or making them unnecessarily uncomfortable.

6. Both document well

Detectives keep careful notes of what they find. Nurses know if they didn’t document what they did, as far as the world is concerned, they did not do it.

7. Both become techno-savvy

Detectives and Nurses know how to use a computer and find information via the internet.

8. Both value their team

Detectives and Nurses have trustworthy teams to back them up and help get the job done. Colleagues are important to solve the crime and give high quality care to patients. Neither profession can do it alone!

Both Nurses and Detectives must possess good observational and critical thinking skills to gather evidence, sort through facts and examine details to come to conclusions. Detectives solve crimes to get criminals off the streets. Nurses solve problems to prevent illness and to assist people recover from illness. So if you are a LPN or RN, feel free to start calling yourself a Nurse Detective.

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Startup Law 101 Series – Ten Essential Legal Tips For Startups at Formation

Here are ten essential legal tips for startup founders.

1.  Set up your legal structure early and use cheap stock to avoid tax problems.

No small venture wants to invest too heavily in legal infrastructure at an early stage. If you are a solo founder working out of the garage, save your dollars and focus on development.

If you are a team of founders, though, setting up a legal structure early is important.

First, if members of your team are developing IP, the lack of a structure means that every participant will have individual rights to the IP he develops. A key founder can guard against this by getting everyone to sign “work-for-hire” agreements assigning such rights to that founder, who in turn will assign them over to the corporation once formed. How many founding teams do this. Almost none. Get the entity in place to capture the IP for the company as it is being developed.

Second, how do you get a founding team together without a structure? You can, of course, but it is awkward and you wind up with having to make promises that must be taken on faith about what will or will not be given to members of the team. On the flip side, many a startup has been sued by a founder who claimed that he was promised much more than was granted to him when the company was finally formed. As a team, don’t set yourselves up for this kind of lawsuit. Set the structure early and get things in writing.

If you wait too long to set your structure up, you run into tax traps. Founders normally work for sweat equity and sweat equity is a taxable commodity. If you wait until your first funding event before setting up the structure, you give the IRS a measure by which to put a comparatively large number on the value of your sweat equity and you subject the founders to needless tax risks. Avoid this by setting up early and using cheap stock to position things for the founding team.

Finally, get a competent startup business lawyer to help with or at least review your proposed setup. Do this early on to help flush out problems before they become serious. For example, many founders will moonlight while holding on to full-time jobs through the early startup phase. This often poses no special problems. Sometimes it does, however, and especially if the IP being developed overlaps with IP held by an employer of the moonlighting founder. Use a lawyer to identify and address such problems early on. It is much more costly to sort them out later.

2.  Normally, go with a corporation instead of an LLC.

The LLC is a magnificent modern legal invention with a wild popularity that stems from its having become, for sole-member entities (including husband-wife), the modern equivalent of the sole proprietorship with a limited liability cap on it.

When you move beyond sole member LLCs, however, you essentially have a partnership-style structure with a limited liability cap on it.

The partnership-style structure does not lend itself well to common features of a startup. It is a clumsy vehicle for restricted stock and for preferred stock. It does not support the use of incentive stock options. It cannot be used as an investment vehicle for VCs. There are special cases where an LLC makes sense for a startup but these are comparatively few in number (e.g., where special tax allocations make sense, where a profits-only interest is important, where tax pass-through adds value). Work with a lawyer to see if special case applies. If not, go with a corporation.

3.  Be cautious about Delaware.

Delaware offers few, if any advantages, for an early-stage startup. The many praises sung for Delaware by business lawyers are justified for large, public companies. For startups, Delaware offers mostly administrative inconvenience.

Some Delaware advantages from the standpoint of an insider group: (1) you can have a sole director constitute the entire board of directors no matter how large and complex the corporate setup, giving a dominant founder a vehicle for keeping everything close the vest (if this is deemed desirable); (2) you can dispense with cumulative voting, giving leverage to insiders who want to keep minority shareholders from having board representation; (3) you can stagger the election of directors if desired.

Delaware also is an efficient state for doing corporate filings, as anyone who has been frustrated by the delays and screw-ups of certain other state agencies can attest.

On the down side — and this is major — Delaware permits preferred shareholders who control the majority of the company’s voting stock to sell or merge the company without requiring the consent of the common stock holders. This can easily lead to downstream founder “wipe outs” via liquidation preferences held by such controlling shareholders.

Also on the down side, early-stage startups incur administrative hassles and extra costs with a Delaware setup. They still have to pay taxes on income derived from their home states. They have to qualify their Delaware corporation as a “foreign corporation” in their home states and pay the extra franchise fees associated with that process. They get franchise tax bills in the tens of thousands of dollars and have to apply for relief under Delaware’s alternative valuation method. None of these items constitutes a crushing problem. Every one is an administrative hassle.

My advice from years of experience working with founders: keep it simple and skip Delaware unless there is some compelling reason to choose it; if there is a good reason, go with Delaware but don’t fool yourself into believing  that you have gotten yourself special prize for your early-stage startup.

4.  Use restricted stock for founders in most cases.

If a founder gets stock without strings on it, and then walks away from the company, that founder will get a windfall equity grant. There are special exceptions, but the rule for most founders should be to grant them restricted stock, i.e., stock that can be repurchased by the company at cost in the event the founder leaves the company. Restricted stock lies at the heart of the concept of sweat equity for founders. Use it to make sure founders earn their keep.

5.  Make timely 83(b) elections.

When restricted stock grants are made, they should almost always be accompanied by 83(b) elections to prevent potentially horrific tax problems from arising downstream for the founders. This special tax election applies to cases where stock is owned but can be forfeited. It must be made within 30 days of the date of grant, signed by the stock recipient and spouse, and filed with the recipient’s tax return for that year.

6.  Get technology assignments from everyone who helped develop IP.

When the startup is formed, stock grants should not be made just for cash contributions from founders but also for technology assignments, as applicable to any founder who worked on IP-related matters prior to formation. Don’t leave these hangning loose or allow stock to be issued to founders without capturing all IP rights for the company.

Founders sometimes think they can keep IP in their own hands and license it to the startup. This does not work. At least the company will not normally be fundable in such cases. Exceptions to this are rare.

The IP roundup should include not only founders but all consultants who worked on IP-related matters prior to company formation. Modern startups will sometimes use development companies in places like India to help speed product development prior to company formation. If such companies were paid for this work, and if they did it under work-for-hire contracts, then whoever had the contract with them can assign to the startup the rights already captured under the work-for-hire contracts. If no work-for-hire arrangements were in place, a stock, stock option, or warrant grant should be made, or other legal consideration paid, to the outside company in exchange for the IP rights it holds.

The same is true for every contractor or friend who helped with development locally. Small option grants will ensure that IP rights are rounded up from all relevant parties. These grants should be vested in whole or in part to ensure that proper consideration exists for the IP assignment made by the consultants.

7.  Protect the IP going forward.

When the startup is formed, all employees and contractors who continue to work for it should sign confidentiality and invention assignment agreements or work-for-hire contracts as appropriate to ensure that all IP remains with the company.

Such persons should also be paid valid consideration for their efforts. If this is in the form of equity compensation, it should be accompanied by some form of cash compensation as well to avoid tax problems arising from the IRS placing a high value on the stock by using the reasonable value of services as a measure of its value. If cash is a problem, salaries may be deferred as appropriate until first funding.

8.  Consider provisional patent filings.

Many startups have IP whose value will largely be lost or compromised once it is disclosed to the others. In such cases, see a good patent lawyer to determine a patent strategy for protecting such IP. If appropriate, file provisional patents. Do this before making key disclosures to investors, etc.

If early disclosures must be made, do this incrementally and only under the terms of non-disclosure agreements. In cases where investors refuse to sign an nda (e.g., with VC firms), don’t reveal your core confidential items until you have the provisional patents on file.

9.  Set up equity incentives.

With any true startup, equity incentives are the fuel that keeps a team going. At formation, adopt an equity incentive plan. These plans will give the board of directors a range of incentives, unsually including restricted stock, incentive stock options (ISOs), and non-qualified options (NQOs).

Restricted stock is usually used for founders and very key people. ISOs are used for employees only. NQOs can be used with any employee, consultant, board member, advisory director, or other key person. Each of these tools has differing tax treatment. Use a good professional to advise you on this.

Of course, with all forms of stock and options, federal and state securities laws must be satisfied. Use a good lawyer to do this.

10. Fund the company incrementally.

Resourceful startups will use funding strategies by which they don’t necessarily go for large VC funding right out the gate. Of course, some of the very best startups have needed major VC funding at inception and have achieved tremendous success. Most, however, will get into trouble if they need massive capital infusions right up front and thereby find themselves with few options if such funding is not available or if it is available only on oppressive terms.

The best results for founders come when they have built significant value in the startup before needing to seek major funding. The dilutive hit is much less and they often get much better general terms for their funding.

Conclusion

These tips suggest important legal elements that founders should factor into their broader strategic planning.

As a founder, you should work closely with a good startup business lawyer to implement the steps correctly. Self-help has its place in small companies, but it almost invariably falls short when it comes to the complex setup issues associated with a startup. In this area, get a good startup business lawyer and do it right.

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BBC TopGear ‘My Dad Had One of Those’ Book Review

One of the best ways to remember days gone by is by looking at old photographs. We all remember the past easier when we’re thumbing through the family photo albums. You can feel nostalgic once again with BBC’s TopGear book by Giles Chapman titled MY DAD HAD ONE OF THOSE.

This 140 page small hardback book is packed with actual photos of vintage cars dating from the 1950’s to the 1980’s. Your sure to find your dad’s old car and sure to find the cars you loved as a child. My favorite is the Ford Mustang of the late 60’s and even the early 70’s.

See how the cars of yesterday did their best to keep up with changing needs of the community around them as you flip page by page. Station wagons, soft tops, and stereos where just some of the ways the car designers tried to handle our growing families, our energetic life styles and our desire to have rock and roll with us at every turn.

No matter what your family car was, it was somehow part of the family and cherished by dad. Late nights at the pier, family picnics in the park, Sunday drives to grandma’s house are all brought back to life with this clever little book about the classics in our driveways.

For those of you that enjoy vintage media material, you’ll also find this book a delight. See some of the original marketing photos for some of the vehicles you grew up in and reminisce about simpler times with mom and dad.

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